Articles and Reports
- EVALUATION REPORT on HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN (HREP) FIELD IMPLEMENTATION for the period January 1, 2013-December 31, 2015
Click to download HREP Evaluation Report 2013-2015
- [formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”Impact Assessment of the Human Rights Education Program for Women (HREP) 2005-2011 (2012, in English)“] Impact Assessment of the Human Rights Education Program for Women (HREP) 2005-2011 (2012, in English) Click to download. [/formlightbox]
- The Shadow NGO Report on Turkey’s 6th Periodic Report to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (2010, in English)
- [formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Neo Liberal Economic Policies – Is it Possible To Have a Happy Marriage? (2009, in Turkish)“] The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Neo Liberal Economic Policies – Is it Possible To Have a Happy Marriage? (2009, in Turkish)This article was written bu Assoc. Prof. Ipek Ilkkaracan of the Dept. of Business Administration at the Istanbul Technical University. It appeared in the May 2009 issue of Güncel Hukuk, a law magazine.
Please click below to download the article. Click to download.
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”CSBR in Sussex University id21 Insights Newsletter (2008, in English)“]
The article “Sexual and bodily rights in Muslim societies” by Pinar Ilkkaracan was published in issue #75 of id21 Insights newsletter of Sussex University.
You can download issue #75 from:
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”Advocating Sexual Rights: The Campaign for the Reform of the Turkish Penal Code (2007, in English)“]
This paper explores how women’s sexual and bodily rights advocates struggle for progressive reform in a context where conservative political forces make active use of issues of sexuality to seek to bolster their power. Based on the reform of the Turkish Penal Code (2004), this paper outlines the key driving forces and obstacles to achieving success.
Liz Ercevik Amado
in Building Feminist Movements and Organizations
New York, 2007
Zed Books & The Association of Women’s Rights in Development (AWID)
ISBN 978 1 84277 849 4 Hb
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”How Adultery Almost Derailed Turkey’s Aspiration to Join the European Union (2007, in English)“]
This paper was published in an e-book “Sex Politics – Reports from the Front Lines” by Sexuality Policy Watch (SPW), an international policy research group.
You can download the article “How Adultery Almost Derailed Turkey’s Aspiration to Join the European Union” frrom: http://www.sxpolitics.org/frontlines/book/pdf/capitulo7_turkey.pdf
You can download the e-book from:
BRIDGE Cutting Edge Pack on Gender and Sexuality (Overview Report edited by Pinar Ilkkaracan and Susie Jolly) (2007, in English)
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”Re/Forming the Penal Code in Turkey from a Gender Perspective: The Case of a Successful Campaign (2007, in English)“]
This paper was prepared for the project on Citizen Engagement and National Policy Change. The paper describes the successful campaign process for the Turkish penal code reform, led by a platform of women’s and LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender) organizations between 2002 and 2004.
Prepared for the project on
Citizen Engagement and National Policy Change.
Institute of Development Studies (IDS)
*You can access the paper on IDS website at http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/Part/proj/pnp.html
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”Promoting Sexual Rights Through Human Rights Education: Experiences at Grassroots in Turkey (2006, in English)“]
“Throughout the world, sexual rights remain one of the most contested domains for women′s human rights. This article draws on experiences from Turkey, a context in which struggles for sexual rights contend with patriarchal norms and conservatism about women′s sexuality. It explores how taking an affirmative approach to sexuality can open up space for women to claim their sexual rights.”
Liz Ercevik Amado
Volume 37, Number 5, October 2006
Human Rights Education Program for Women (HREP): Utilizing State Resources to Promote Women′s Human Rights in Turkey (2005, in English and Turkish)
Human Rights Education as a Tool of Grassroots Organizing and Social Transformation: A Case Study from Turkey (2005, in English and Turkish)
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”Turkey′s Shadow Report presented to the CEDAW Committee (2005, in Turkish and English)“]
The Convention on the Elimination of All Kinds of Discrimination of Women (CEDAW) remains one of the most useful instruments at the UN level to promote women’s human rights in the national contexts.
In 2004, WWHR-New Ways started the coordination and facilitation of an NGO Shadow Report for Turkey’s periodic review in 2004-2005. In June 2004, we prepared and submitted a shadow report to the CEDAW Pre-Session, endorsed by 26 members of our national Women’s Platform on the Turkish Penal Code. Our Shadow Report, which was highly acclaimed at the pre-session, included sections on specifically the new legislation and its shortcomings in relation to gender issues in Turkey (the new civil and penal codes, and the constitutional amendment for gender equality), as well as recommendations for upcoming reforms (the public administration and local governance reform, labour legislation and the quota system).
(The CEDAW report is also available in Turkish. Click here to download the Turkish version)
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”Gender, Sexuality and the Criminal Laws in the Middle East and North Africa: A Comparative Study (2005, in English)“]
The article is based on a comparative study on how gender and sexuality is constructed and regulated in the criminal laws of the Middle East and North Africa. It examines the commonalities of criminal laws from the region in the domain of sexuality, also providing a historical perspective and insight into the amalgamation of tribal, religious, colonial laws and their impact on the modern codes. Providing a thematic comparative study of constructs of honor, adultery, honor crimes, rape, sexual abuse, abortion, marital rape, homosexuality, sex work, FGM etc., the article explores how human rights violations in the domain of sexuality are legitimized by law in the region and how oppression of sexuality is perpetrated by the existing penal systems. The first such comparative and comprehensive article on the issue, Gender, Sexuality and the Criminal Laws in the Middle East and North Africa: A comparative study offers an in depth historical and contemporary analysis of sexuality and penal codes in the region, as well as discourses of gender, sexuality in the criminal systems. The article is both a unique resource and a powerful advocacy tool for ongoing reform initiatives in the region.
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”Sexual and Bodily Rights as Human Rights in the Middle East and North Africa: A Workshop Report (2004, in English)“]
A workshop on Sexual and Bodily Rights as Human Rights in the Middle East and North Africa, co-organized by Women for Women’s Human Rights – New Ways and the Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies, was held in Malta from May 29 to June 1, 2003. Twenty-two representatives of NGOs from Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Turkey, Pakistan, Malta and the USA participated in the three day meeting. The workshop was designed to exchange information, knowledge and experience in the area of sexual and bodily rights and thus provide a broader regional framework for the ongoing efforts. Furthermore it aimed at strengthening the growing network on sexuality in the Middle East and North Africa and promoting regional efforts, while maintaining the significance of national contexts and peculiar characteristics of individual cases. The objective was to establish and/or strengthen the organic and inherent links springing from commonalities in the societies’ social, religious, legal and political structures and develop and/or elaborate on strategies to promote sexual and bodily rights as human rights.
Liz Erçevik Amado
WWHR New Ways
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”Human Rights Education Program for Women (HREP) Evaluation Report (2003, in Turkish and English)“]
The Human Rights Education Program for Women (HREP) was developed in 1995 by WWHR-New Ways as a non-formal holistic human rights training program to equip women with necessary knowledge and skills towards the full enjoyment of their human rights and mobilization around their own needs towards social change and democratization as free and equal individuals.
According to the External Evaluation Research on HREP conducted by an independent research team, the impact of HREP on participants is:
- 93% of them have improved their self-confidence;
- 63% have stopped domestic violence while 22% have reduced it;
- 88% became resource people in their communities;
- 74% started participating more equally in decision-making in the family;
- 43% started participating actively in the labor market;
- 72% their husband’s attitude and behaviour towards them changed positively;
- 54% restarted their interrupted formal or non formal education;
- 90% gained knowledge on their political, civil and economic rights.
You can read the findings in detail in the HREP evaluation report.
(Evaluation report is also available in Turkish. Click here to download the Turkish version)
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”Women, Sexuality and Social Change in the Middle East and the Maghreb (2002, in English)“]
What makes women experience sexuality in particular ways, and how can this be challenged when it contributes to inequality and abuse of human rights? This paper details the political practices that have lead to the ways that women’s sexuality is defined and policed and argues that women’s oppression and abuses of their human rights are more to do with political, economic and social inequalities rather than Islam. It looks at three factors that have had an impact on women’s sexuality in the Muslim world: modernisation, nationalism and the rise of the Islamic religious right.
Modernisation often benefits women of more privileged groups and denies traditional modes of female power. Nationalist movements control women as carriers of cultural identity. The Islamic religious right controls female sexuality and promotes some of the worse customary practices as a way of defining ‘culture’. However, recent movements have secured legal and social reforms which reflect new attitudes to women’s sexuality; for example in Morocco, Lebanon, Tunisia and Turkey, where premarital sex is escaping from its taboo status. However, this creates its own conflicts, as these new social (and economic) attitudes confront the patriarchal society.
The paper outlines legal as well as social change and describes how a new ‘reformist discourse’ has sought to remove discussions of sexuality from religion to social and economic practices.
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”The “Natasha” Experience: Migrant Sex Workers from the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe in Turkey (2002, in English)“]
Women have been migrating across the world in increasing numbers and the sex industry remains one option for work in host countries. This paper looks at the case of migrant sex workers from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe in Turkey, documenting sex workers’ experiences in Istanbul. The underground nature of the sex industry, combined with restrictions on illegal/undocumented immigration in host countries, creates working and living conditions for women that facilitate health risks, violence, harassment, police bribery, detention and arbitrary deportation. There is much controversy over whether sex work is “forced” or “voluntary”. This paper proposes that policy debates regarding sex work should focus not so much on whether women “choose” to enter the profession but should instead support the practical measures to improve their lives – in particular improving migrant women’s living and working conditions by addressing restrictive and abusive immigration policies and by decriminalizing undocumented sex work.
Leyla Gülçür and Pinar Ilkkaracan
Women’s Studies International Forum
Vol.25, No.4, 2002, pp.411-421
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”Islam and Women′s Sexuality: A Research Report from Turkey (2001, in English)“]
This article, which is based on data collected by Women for Women’s Human Rights in eastern Turkey within the framework of the international Women and Law action-research program, examines laws and practices related to important elements in shaping the context of women’s sexuality: civil versus religious marriages, bride prices, polygyny, women’s consent to marriage, reproductive health, the possible consequences of extramarital relationships for women, and domestic violence. The analysis is based on interviews conducted with 599 women in eastern Turkey.
Mary Hunt, Patricia B. Jung and Radhika Balakrishnan (ed.)
Good Sex: Feminist Perspectives from the World’s Religions
Rutgers University Press
New Jersey, 2001
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”Sexual Pleasure as a Woman′s Human Right: Experiences from a Grassroots Training Program in Turkey (1999, in English)“]
Written by Ipek Ilkkaracan and Gulsah Seral Aksakal
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”A Study on Domestic Violence and Sexual Abuse in Ankara, Turkey (1999, in English)“]
Violence against women has been one of the primary areas of activity for Women for Women’s Human Rights (WWHR) since its 1993 inception Istanbul, Turkey. This report, conducted by Dr Leyla Gülçür, is based on a field study on domestic violence and family life of women living in Ankara.This research contributed to the campaign to combat domestic violence, which focused on realizing the enactment of new legislation on domestic violence in Turkey, namely the ‘protection orders’ system. This publication, compiling the findings of research on domestic violence, was sent to members of the Justice Commission, several parliamentarians and ministers, and was used extensively to lobby for such legal changes.
This report provides an interesting example of action-research and includes at the end, the full text of the new law on the protection of the family, which was successfully enacted as a result of this intense lobbying and campaigning.
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”The Human Rights Education Programme of Turkey 1998-2007 (1999, in Turkish and English)“]
This valuable resource was compiled and published by the National Committee on the Decade for Human Rights Education. This publication is also available in Turkish. To download the report in Turkish click here.
The National Committee on the Decade for Human Rights Education,
July 1999, Ankara
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”Women and Internal Migration in Turkey in the 1990s (1999, in Turkish)“]
This article tackles the issue of internal migration from a gender perspective. The study is based on the data of a broader field survey made by Women for Women Human Rights action-research team in 1996-97 in the Marmara, Eastern and Southeastern regions of Turkey.
Pinar Ilkkaracan and Ipek Ilkkaracan
Bilanço 98: 75 Yilda Köylerden Sehirlere, s. 305-324.
Istanbul: Tarih Vakfi, 1999
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”Exploring the Context of Sexuality in Eastern Turkey (1998, in Turkish)“]
In Turkey, which has been a secular state since 1923, the impact on women’s sexuality of the imbalance of power in sexual relations is clearly visible in the Eastern region, where a high rate of female illiteracy, a desolate economic situation, a variety of customary and religious practices that are often in breach of the official laws, and specific forms of cultural violence and collective means aimed at controlling women’s sexuality, produce a wide range of violations of women’s human rights. This article examines consent to marriage, marriage customs, polygyny and the potential consequences of extra-marital relationships for women as important elements of the context of women’s sexuality in Eastern Turkey. This publications is based on data from interviews conducted with 599 women in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia, within the framework of a broader research study on the impact of official, religious and customary laws on women’s lives in Turkey.
Reproductive Health Matters
Vol. 6, No. 12, November 1998, p.66 – 75
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”Women in the Family in Eastern Turkey (1998, in Turkish)“]
In spite of the comparatively modern 1926 Civil Code and the early Republic’s aim of modernizing the family along with Turkish society, the family has proved to be the most traditional institution in Turkish society. Traditional practices and rules did not immediately leave the stage to modern laws and social change, as was foreseen. This article examines the family institution and mechanisms of modernizing influence in eastern Anatolia. The study is based on data from a broader field survey made by Women for Women Human Rights action-research team in 1996-97 in the Marmara, Eastern and Southeastern regions of Turkey.
Bilanço 98: 75 Yilda Kadinlar ve Erkekler, s. 173-192
Istanbul: Tarih Vakfi,1998.
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”From Subjects to Citizens: Where are the Women? (1998, in Turkish)“]
This article attempts to analyze where women in Turkey – in all their diversity – stand in terms of citizenship. The study is based on the data from a broader field survey made by Women for Women Human Rights action-research team in 1996-97 in the Marmara, Eastern and Southeastern regions of Turkey.
Ipek Ilkkaracan, Pinar Ilkkaracan
Bilanço 98: 75 Yilda Tebaa’dan Yurttas’a Dogru,s.77-90
Istanbul: Tarih Vakfi, 1998
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”Urban Women and Labor Force Participation: A Case Study in Istanbul (1998, in Turkish)“]
Contrary to the overall trend of femininization of labor power in most developing countries along with the adoption of export-oriented development policies in the 1970s and 80s, Turkey is going through a process deepening masculinizaton of labor power. Based on data from a field survey conducted in Ümraniye, a densely populated Istanbul neighborhood with a high percentage of immigrants, this study sets out from personal accounts and attempts to analyze women’s participation in economic life from a gender perspective.
Bilanço 98: 75 Yilda Kadinlar ve Erkekler, s 285-302.
Istanbul: Tarih Vakfi, 1998.
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”Migration, Women′s Economic Status, Mobility and Power Dynamics in the Family (1998, in Turkish)“]
One of the subjects taken up in the field survey Women for Women’s Human Rights-New Ways conducted on the Status of Women in Turkey was the economic status of women and its relationship with migration and domestic power dynamics. Women’s participation in labor, which stood at 70 per cent in 1950s, steadily declined to around 30 per cent in the 1990s. Internal migration is cited as one of the most important causes of this decrease. According to this line of reasoning, women who worked as unpaid workers in family enterprises in the countryside have, after arriving in big cities, becoming housewives rather than participate in the urban labor market. This study attempts to understand the process of change in women’s economic status based on field data incorporating women’s attitudes toward regular employment, reasons for not working, mobility, participation in decision-making processes in their families, demographic profiles of the women and their families and migration profiles.
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”Turkey′s Shadow Report presented to the CEDAW Committee (1997, in Turkish and English)“]
Turkey’s Shadow Report, prepared by Women for Women’s Human Rights (WWHR) – New Ways and presented to the CEDAW Committee in 1997 is available in English and in Turkish.
[formlightbox title=”” style=”width:600px;” text=”Domestic Violence and Family Life as Experienced by Turkish Immigrant Women in Germany (1996, in English)“]
This study is based on empirical information on the family life of Turkish immigrant women living in Berlin, as well as on their experiences of domestic violence and their strategies to combat it. In Germany, as in most of Western Europe, there is a stereotype of Moslem women as having very low decision-making power in the family and being exposed to more violence than their Western counterparts at home. This paper argues that women from Moslem or Eastern societies develop and apply various strategies of decision-making at home and stand up to the violence in their daily lives just as much as other women despite the drawbacks which result from their immigrant status.
Istanbul, 1996. Second Edition 1999.